A little history…                                                                                                                     
The patented FARADAYIC® Process is based on programmable, rapidly modulated, electric fields enabling simple, easily controlled, electrically-mediated process control vs. conventional use of exotic, toxic, proprietary additive chemistry, or chemical mediation. The practice of chemical mediation has been used since Michael Faraday developed the laws of electrolysis in the 19th Century, enabling an entire industry to evolve based on electrochemical “art” and the use of “magic chemical additives” rather than a practical understanding of the power of the electric field. The observed need for this practical understanding of the electric field was the genesis for founding Faraday Technology, Inc. in 1991 and has been the basis for the development of the FARADAYIC® Process.

Applications for electrochemical reactions are almost endless. Batteries and electroplating are among the most common examples, but since the middle of the twentieth century, electrochemistry has also played an increasingly dominant role in a vast number of research and applied areas, such as the study of new organic and inorganic compounds, and biological systems. Other areas include fabrication of objects at the microscopic scale, electrochemical machining, environmental remediation of soil and water, accurate analysis of chemical impurities, understanding and prevention of corrosion of materials, conversion of chemical energy into electricity, biomedical separations, and nanotechnology.

The following publications give the reader an introduction to the FARADAYIC® Process.

DRAFT Chapter - Breaking the Chemical Paradigm in Electrochemical Engineering

JASF 2008 - Blum Award

P&SF 2003 - Faraday Cover Article 

Les Nouvelles 2001 - Innovation Case Study at an R&D Company


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FARADAYIC® Process                                                                                                       
Electrochemical reactions present many advantages. They have very few kinetic limitations and are specific to the chemistry and electric field. Performing the electrochemical operation as a process (i.e. a sequence of steps) has enabled engineers to increase the level of complexity of processed parts. For electrochemical operations that combine DC current or voltage and a chemical bath, the composition of the bath is the main parameter and is tuned by the addition of chemical products in order to achieve the desired characteristics of the processed part. Such operations are very sensitive to even small amounts of chemical additives. Recently, pulse waves and reverse pulse waves have replaced DC current in some applications, thus providing a wider range of process parameters to achieve the desired results. In other words, it is now possible to think in terms of electrical mediation instead of chemical mediation.

Trading electrical mediation for chemical mediation provides many benefits, from quality of final product to reduction of time, cost and capital investment. Electrically mediated processes are indeed simpler, cleaner, more controllable and more robust than chemical processes. One important benefit is the ability to process smaller feature size of parts. This makes electrical mediation especially attractive for the nanotechnology and semiconductor industries. Faraday has demonstrated that it is possible to replace chemical mediation with electrical mediation for a variety of electrochemical engineering applications. Faraday always begins process development by designing the waveform parameters in a simple chemistry. If chemical additives are required to complement the electrical mediation, they will be added in the latter stages of process development. The function of chemical additives and wave sequences can conflict with or complement each other. Faraday works to understand the impact of each, and design a total electrochemical solution that best suits the needs of the client. In this way, the FARADAYIC® Process is inherently environmentally-benign, as the use of electrical mediation can help to avoid some of the historically toxic chemical additives used in prior electrochemical processes.

Faraday’s unique expertise in the effect of each waveform has enabled the development of the FARADAYIC® Process, which consists of the design of appropriate waveform characteristics and sequencing in order to perform various electromechanical operations using electrical mediation. Just as there are infinite combinations of height, width, and length to obtain a given volume, in electrically mediated processes there are unlimited combinations of peak current density or voltage, duty cycles, and frequencies to obtain a given average current density or voltage. These additional parameters provide the potential for much greater process / product control versus chemically mediated processes.

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Process Hardware                                                                                                                  
All electrochemical processes MUST be built upon a foundation of good primary (geometric) current distribution and uniform flow of electrolyte across the surface of the part. Both chemically and electrically mediated electrochemical processes cannot overcome bad primary current distribution, as their influence on the total current distribution is less than that of primary current distribution. Consequently, Faraday focuses on good electrochemical cell design to deploy the FARADAYIC® Process. Furthermore, some of Faraday’s clients have successfully deployed Faraday’s customized hardware designs for their current DC electrochemical processes.

Primary current distribution is dependent on the cell geometry and the uniformity of flow across the surface of the part. These can be achieved in a number of ways, some more effective than others:

  • Agitation
  • Anode/Cathode Spacing
  • Anode Design
  • Yields Process Uniformity

Secondary and tertiary current distribution is governed by process parameters:

  • Waveform Parameters
  • Chemistry
  • Temperature
  • Boundary Layer Thickness
  • Control of Throwing Power

Faraday utilizes a number of concepts to achieve true uniform hydrodynamic flow across a part, with excellent current distribution through design of the cathode to anode configuration. These concepts include eductor flow directed by shaped guides, adjustable cathode to anode distance, and a virtual electrode.

By coupling the FARADAYIC® Process with the innovative equipment designed and built by Faraday, a total manufacturing solution can be achieved.

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Precision process control with electrochemistry!


Forget the chemicals and eliminate the expenses of waste disposal!


Faraday Technology, Inc. | 315 Huls Drive, Englewood, OH 45315
Phone: (937)836-7749 Fax: (937)836-9498